Tagged: immunology

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Immune sensor maintains gut microbiome

Emerging evidence indicates that the immune system can influence microbiome composition. Chen et al. now report that patients with active ulcerative colitis have low expression of NLRP12, which is best known for its role...

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Developing an HIV vaccine

In 2015, 17 million HIV-infected individuals worldwide were on antiretroviral drug therapies, which are remarkably effective in suppressing the virus. Yet, 6000 people a day became newly infected, making the quest for an effective...

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The Year in Zika

Zika is a mosquito-borne, sexually transmissible virus that is now known to cause a variety of birth defects. The ongoing epidemic of Zika virus infection in parts of the Americas is unlike any outbreak...

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Blocking metastasis

Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), made of processed chromatin bound to cytotoxic enzymes, are released by neutrophils into the extracellular space to control microbial infections. However, NETs have also been implicated in cancer metastasis. Here,...

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Viruses of the Human Body

S ince the dawn of microbiology, researchers have focused on pathogens that make us and our domesticated animals and plants sick. Because the onset of symptoms was the only way to know if specific...

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Nixing NETs to Prevent Metastasis

Tumor cells undergoing metastasis prompt neutrophils to extrude stringy DNA webs known as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) that help the cancer invade other tissues, according to a paper published today (October 19) in Science...

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Culprit for Antibody Blockade Identified

Most viral infections trigger B cells to produce neutralizing antibodies, but for a handful of viruses that cause chronic infections, B cells are for some reason unable to do their job. The biggest driver...

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Flu immunity shows its age

As we age, our immune systems change; in many ways not for the better. For instance, the elderly account for 90% of influenza deaths annually. Pillai et al. now report that influenza-infected human monocytes,...

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Unveiling the Zika virus

The ongoing Zika virus epidemic is of grave concern because of its apparent links to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Sirohi et al. present a near-atomic-resolution structure of mature Zika virus determined by cryo-electron...

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Cancer Immunotherapy Booster

Cancer research is a rapidly evolving field with new discoveries emerging daily on its biology, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. In particular, the recent achievement of several key immunotherapy milestones dramatically changed the landscape of cancer...

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Mutations Not Tied to Metastasis

Dozens of genetic mutations are known to facilitate cancer progression, but metastasis doesn’t appear to be controlled by additional changes to the genome. A study of hundreds of colorectal cancer patients published in Science...

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Cross-Reactive Ebola Antibodies

From blood samples of survivors of a 2007 Ebola outbreak in Uganda, researchers have isolated antibodies that are protective and can neutralize two other species of Ebolavirus, including ­­Zaire ebolavirus—the one responsible for the...

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Birth of the Skin Microbiome

The skin is home to millions of commensal bacteria and immune cells. Yet how the skin microbiome is established in particular, why the immune system does not attack these bacteria—has been little studied. Now,...

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