Countering TB prodrug resistance
The arsenal of antibiotics for treating tuberculosis (TB) contains many prodrugs, such as ethionamide, which need activation by normal metabolism to release their toxic effects. Ethionamide is potentiated by small molecules. Blondiaux et al. screened for more potent analogs and identified a lead compound called SMARt-420. This small molecule inactivates a TetR-like repressor, EthR2, and boosts ethionamide activation. SMARt-420 successfully promoted clearance of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the lungs of mice.
Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to human health globally. Alarmingly, multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now spread worldwide. Some key antituberculosis antibiotics are prodrugs, for which resistance mechanisms are mainly driven by mutations in the bacterial enzymatic pathway required for their bioactivation. We have developed drug-like molecules that activate a cryptic alternative bioactivation pathway of ethionamide in M. tuberculosis, circumventing the classic activation pathway in which resistance mutations have now been observed. The first-of-its-kind molecule, named SMARt-420 (Small Molecule Aborting Resistance), not only fully reverses ethionamide-acquired resistance and clears ethionamide-resistant infection in mice, it also increases the basal sensitivity of bacteria to ethionamide……